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05 februarie 2016

YAESU FT-530 wrong modification!

Well, a few days ago, one of the best portable (and the best I had) made a stop on my repairment bench.
A Yaesu FT-530 (in mint condition) had a strange behaviour! It discharge a fresh charged battery in about a week on standby! Well, I do have a similar radio in my collection (Yeah baby, with the remote mic/speaker, the one with LCD) and I can tell you that you can keep the radio for more than 3 months on a charged battery and it's not dischargin it to the bottom.
It's true that the radio has a software On/Off switch but the discharge current is around 74 uA, so there is no chance to see a discharge in one week.
First tought was that the battery was weak or, because the owner used a LiPo two cell series custom pack, the inner equaliser circuit is the culprit. But was no case, the circuit was OK!
A quick measurement on the current, at the battery connector, came up with a 10 mA surge with the radio off! too much for this radio!

So, the hard part was to came!

When repair a FT-530, be prepared with the schematics. Sorry, no electronic service manual is available on the internet, that radio was made well before the internet age and it's built like a tank so not too many users need that service manual...
After that, I suspected something wrong at the VHF/UHF hybrid PA. But this was a theoretical approach and I had to open up the radio.

So, I took off the screws and open up the radio. Again, I was amazed about how well is designed this radio! Looks like the engineers won the battle with the management team and imposed the best that they could did with no cost control imposed!
Two microprocessors, helix filters in Rx front end, backup battery for the watch, separate boards for VHF section and UHF section, bottom line, the Yaesu FT-530 IS THE BEST HAM RADIO I SAW EVER. EVER!

 

First of all, the radio 'breaks' in two major halves. The upper one, with the LCD and keyboard has the audio and logic boars. It's on the right side. There was no interest in that yet because the first step was to put the radio in working mode without the case to be able to check some voltages and currents.
At the very botton, right under the battery holder, there is a board where you can play with various levels at receiving signals and modulation. And after you play, you came here to put the radio on the analyser because is screwed, HI.

The left side of the radio (the rear half) has the radio boards. The VHF is on the upper plate, the UHF on the bottom. On the UHF radio board is the antenna connector and also the external power connector.
You can see the silicone thermal grease. Well, that was put by me; I somehow cheated with these pictures as I took them AFTER the repairment :-)

After I dismount the whole rear boards, I reassembled them on the bench. You know, the radio boards are controlled each by a small control module which communicate with the uC on the front board. Therefore, you cannot measure anything without a proper jig or with the radio assembled!




I fed the radio with + 10V and limited current (around 100 mA) directly on the UHF board, right at the external power connector. And I measured the current. Still 10 mA! No good.

So I fed the radio at the common point between D2030 and D2029. This diodes separate the battery circuit and the battery charger circuit (Q2017 and associate passive components).
Big surprise! The power sure came at the right current: 74 uA!

So, the only suspect here was the charging circuit itself! I wanted to know what was the voltage drop between the +Batt and CHG pins at J2005 (UHF board connector) but I found 0 volts there. And THIS WAS UNUSUAL!

Measuring the resistance, I came up with 0 Ohm. This meant that both D2029 and 2030 diodes and also the Q2017 (BE junction) where conductive! Off the circuit, these components was performing as needed. So, there was a fault in the circuit's lines!

For no reason at all, I start to look very carefull at the battery contacts. There is a plastic board (at the bottom of the radio) where the contacts to the battery are. Between the + and - there is a small contact pin with a spring which is used to charge the 9.6 and 7.2 battery packs  to charge them when attached to the radio (sorry, no 12V charging there, only on the desktop charger)!

A quick look revealed nothing but a carefull one with my magnifing lenses showed a little reflection on a metal wire which has no reason to be there!

Well, my intuition was right; this was the problem! Someone (I believe the one who took 'care' about the original silicone thermal grease)

Can you spot the problem here?
Sure you can see it now!
The radio now has returned to it's normal "state of mind", with a good sleep at only 74 uA!


Case closed...
73 de YO3HJV

One is mine, one is the repaired one...
One is mine, one is the repaired one...

01 februarie 2016

Low profile duplex UHF Repeater for Ham radio Emergency Communications

Finally, a portable duplex UHF repeater!
A few years ago I start to think about a small, portable and very reliable duplex repeater for emergency communications.
The first condition was to be imune to spurious signals from other transmitters because in a real emergency, is presumed that on the air will be a lot of activity.
Another crucial condition was the ability to operate from a lead acid battery for a long period of time, at leas for 12-24 hrs, depending on the alternative power supply at the site of the repeater. But to be sure, a period of time of 24 hrs was considered.

Based on my experience with various radios, "the chosen one" was the small GP300 from Motorola.

Why?
Hmmm, because:
-On the receiving it has a smart PLL demodulator able to improve considerably the S/N ratio, making faint signals receivable;
-The receiving front end is absolutely imune to adiacent and unwanted signals, opening the squelch only on a signal on the right frequency; this happens also when you put it on a high gain external antenna!
-The transmitter is self-aware about the temperature and pretty resistant to high SWR
-The modulation is extremly well done with a great AGC
-The current consumption on standby is around 30 mA while the TX current is around 1.7A @ 5W (very efficient!)

Also, Motorola GP300 has a long history of reliability in various conditions and, very important, the inner built is very strong and has a good EM shield around the PCB.

And the last, they have a nice and clean schematic and is a pleasure to work with a very few components for a good repeater! This is the condition of reliability!

The only con I found is the power supply; the radio itself work at 7.5V and the batteries usually at 12-14 V. A DC-DC converter is needed!

A couple of years ago I bought a small UHF duplex filter from a fellow ham. It's a 5 cell filter, with 2 cells on the low side and 3 cells on the high side. Of course, the receiving path of the repeater had to be on the upper side to have a better notch on the TX signal from the repeater itself.



The years gone by and recently, due to the increase interest in emergency communications, I started to think very serious about this forgotten project.

After a little search on the swap lists, I found two of them. Well, the versions I found are the narrow FM ones. I do have the filters for 25 kHz but is a pain in the s@&%#$ to change them so I decided to work with them instead of working against...

I did some modifications; the main mod is removing all the connectors form the top of the radio! The RF port, and the combined Earphon/Microphone. They take a lot of space! I also cut the shafts from the volume potentiometer and the channel selector... They are useles... Oh, don't forget to put the radio ON because after the shaft is cut, is very hard to do it!

Receiving side

From the receiver radio, we basically need only to signals:
- de-emphasised audio
- Carrier/PL detect

Take a look on the schematic. The audio will be taken after Q406 and after the C433, directly at the volume potentiometer. The main advantage is that the audio is muted! What does mean? Simple, the uC send a positive voltage to the Base of Q406 when a signal greater than the designated squelch level is received. Immediatly after the signal is gone, the receiving audio is muted, hence the white noise is suppressed. The repeater will not have a white noise tail! If you like to have it, just take the audio with a capacitor from the emitter of Q406. Is a little hard to find but not impossible if you have the service manual. (which, like other Motorola radios, I do not have, do not insist, search engines are your best friend!)

If you plan to play around with the audio and to  extract the PL to work with on an external decoder, well, the things are a little bit complicated because you have to access the pin #7 of the AFIC circuit or pin # 28 of the Rx circuit (a modified topography of the classic MC3363). If you have the guts, you can connect to the uC pin # 41 where you have a nice digital signal extracted by AFIC, ready to b processed wherever you want!
You also can use the radio's low speed data slicer if you plan to use PL/DPL (CTCSS/DCS) to controll the repeater behaviour but I advice you to not because is hard to access the pins there! They are just near the uC chip.

Ok, so now we need a Carrier Detect signal. The carrier detect also cand work as a PL detect but only for the PL programmed in the radio's memory. If you need a PL, put it on the receiving side GP-300 and, voila! The repeater now open only at the right PL (CTCSS) or DPL (DCS)!

I took this signal directly from the Audio PA Vcc, U409 at pin # 1. There you will find the 7.5V when the radio receive a coherent signal.
Be aware, that path is open also when the radio want to send audio signals to the operator (battery low or other stuff like that).
By the way, I disabled all this signalling  from the RSS.

Transmitting side

The receiving signal from the other GP-300 will be "prepared" a little and after that, will be sent to the Mic input of the radio. Of course, due to the removal of the Mic connector, you will have to find the right pin on the PCB. Just put the radio into transmission and test the PCB holes where the connector was with a fine metal tip. On a control radio you will find the right pin very easy!
For the "engineers", take a look into the service manual and find C427... There you are!

The PTT is easy, just take a small piece of wire in parallel with the little switch on the left side of the radio. The lowest one. The PTT works when is put to the Ground and is tied up to 5V via a 10 kOhm resistor.


The controller


Well, the first was made with one transistor and two resistors. Neat and clean. Worked perfectly but the operators cannot listen to the tail. It was to short!
But provided a helpfull hand to test the repeater and the filter.

The second (and final) version was made around an Arduino Nano board.
The things were a little complicated because I want to have some sort of battery voltage indication to know when to shorten the QSOs.

And the solution was very simple. I measure the battery voltage before the DC/DC converter and change the courtesy tone structure according to the battery state.

A single high pitch short beep when the voltage is between 11.5-13.8 V, a low pitch followed by a high pitch when the battery voltage is over the 13.8V, a high pitch followe by a low pitch when the voltage drop under 11.5 V and is higher than 10.5V and a long and grave beep when is even lower.

Under 10V, I plan to put a latch relay to close the radios. Or to block the PTT command signal. I don't know yet...

I found that the repeater has some noise and, after checking the duplex filter I concluded that the noise is internall. Indeed, after I took some drastic measures to ground the radios and to shield the receiving radio, the received signal is very clean and pleasant.
Of course, the repeater have a beacon which transmit the callsign, the QTH and the CTCSS if it is provided.

First setup. Some will say is ugly. I agree!


Very quick PCB. Drawed by hand.

A little bit of Arduino Nano...


The conroller is assembled.

The little UHF Repeater.




Some more shielding.




And, here is the code:

/*
   This junk is meant to controll a small repeater in UHF made of two portable radios
   Motorola GP300.
  
   Features in this version:
       -Courtesy tone  - since V 6.0
       -Beacon each 60 minutes   - since V 6.2
       -Battery status announced by beacon or by courtesy tone - since V 6.4-prepared
          working at from V 6.6
       -CW beacon with callsign, QTH and stuff   - since V 7.0
       -Tx radio disconnect after 5 minutes of inactivity
       -Mind control
       -etc
      
       The work is always on progress
       The program has been rewritten completely since 5.x version      
       This is version 7.1
      
       This code is released under "Beerware License" (buy me a beer when you see me).
       Author: Adrian Florescu YO3HJV
       http:///www.yo3hjv@blogspot.com

 */

/////////////// Simple Arduino CW Beacon //////////////////

// Written by Mark VandeWettering K6HX
// Email: k...@arrl.net
//
// Thx Mark de YO3HJV !
//
struct t_mtab { char c, pat; } ;
struct t_mtab morsetab[] = {
      {'.', 106},
    {',', 115},
    {'?', 76},
    {'/', 41},
    {'A', 6},
    {'B', 17},
    {'C', 21},
    {'D', 9},
    {'E', 2},
    {'F', 20},
    {'G', 11},
    {'H', 16},
    {'I', 4},
    {'J', 30},
    {'K', 13},
    {'L', 18},
    {'M', 7},
    {'N', 5},
    {'O', 15},
    {'P', 22},
    {'Q', 27},
    {'R', 10},
    {'S', 8},
    {'T', 3},
    {'U', 12},
    {'V', 24},
    {'W', 14},
    {'X', 25},
    {'Y', 29},
    {'Z', 19},
    {'1', 62},
    {'2', 60},
    {'3', 56},
    {'4', 48},
    {'5', 32},
    {'6', 33},
    {'7', 35},
    {'8', 39},
    {'9', 47},
    {'0', 63}
        } ;
#define N_MORSE  (sizeof(morsetab)/sizeof(morsetab[0]))
#define CW_SPEED  (22)
#define DOTLEN  (1200/CW_SPEED)
#define DASHLEN  (3.5*(1200/CW_SPEED))  // CW weight  3.5 / 1

////////// end CW section ////////////

///////// define repeater beacon Messages ////////////

    #define  RPT_call       ("YO3RVSU")   // Call sign of the repeater
   
   // #define  RPT_ctcss      ("79.7")    // CTCSS tone uncomment if needed

    #define  RPT_loc        ("kn34bk")    // Repeater QTH locator   
    #define  END_msg        ("SK")        // Goodby Message
   


//CW   tone output
    #define  CW_pin          (5)     // Pin for CW audio out
    #define  CW_PITCH        (900)   // CW pitch
   
   
   
// PANEL LEDs

   #define ledtx            (2)    // pin for TX LED
   

                          int rx = 6;                        // Carrier Detect digital input pin
                          int ptt = 12;                      // PTT digital output pin
                         
                              float slaV = 0;                //  variable to store voltage from the ADC after the resistive divider
                              int vMath = 0;                 //  variable used for maths with ADC and voltage
                              float volts = 0;               //  volts from ADC readings
  
                   unsigned long previousMillis = 0;         // will store last time beacon transmitted           
                   const long interval = 900000;            // 60 min interval at which to beacon (milliseconds)  3600000 15 min=900000 
             
  
                              int cDet = 0;                  // current state of the Carrier Detect
                              int lastcDet = 0;              // previous state of the Carrier Detect
   
  
 
        void setup () {
    
          //  Serial.begin(9600);              // for debugging
              
               pinMode(CW_pin, OUTPUT);      // Output pin for beacon and audio
                //  digitalWrite(CW_pin, LOW);           // CW pin init
   
               pinMode(10, INPUT) ;          //  Carrier Detect on pin 10 with transistor, tied up with 10 kOhm.
                                             //  when signal is received goes LOW.                             
               pinMode(12, OUTPUT);          //  Here we have PTT. When transmission is needed, this pin goes HIGH.
              
               pinMode(2, OUTPUT);           //  TX LED
                                     }
 
    /* ******************************** Functions here  ************************ */
   
        // What it does when signal is receiving.
       
        void repeat ()   
                   {
                cDet = digitalRead(rx);
                              if (cDet != lastcDet) {                 // if the state has changed
                                                                    
                                   if (cDet == LOW) {                 // if the current state is HIGH then the button
                                                                      // went from off to on:
                                   digitalWrite(ptt, HIGH);           //  Tx PTT @ +5V
                                   digitalWrite(ledtx, HIGH);         //  TX LED ON
                                                     }
                              else {                                  // same state @cDet input
                                      delay(20);                      // wait a little before courtesy tone
                                      courtesy();                     // execute 'courtesy' function
                                      delay(70);                      // Wait a little while TX
                                      digitalWrite(ptt, LOW);         // put Tx PTT @ GND, go to StandBy
                                      digitalWrite(ledtx, LOW);
                                   }
                             delay(50);                               // Delay a little bit to avoid bouncing
                                                      }
                                                  
                 lastcDet = cDet;                                     // save the current state as the last state
                                                                      // for next time through the loop
                   }  // END of 'repeat' function
     
     
     
     
          // Function to return the battery voltage     
          // Better to call it when transmitting to have a 'worst case' measurement      
                   
          float battery() {
                     delay(50);                                       //  hold on before ADC reading
                     int vMath = analogRead(A0);                      //  Load the SLA BAttery voltage through resistive divider on ADC A0
                     float slaV = vMath * (15 / 1023.0);              //  slaV will be calculated in Volts  with max value 15V                       
                     return slaV;                                     //  The 'battery' function returning voltage measuring
                     }   
 
  
      // *************  MAIN LOOP  ***************
              
      void loop() {   
                repeat();                                    // called  at the beggining
                      
                delay(100);                                  // AntiKerchunk delay
                                                             // Beacon timer  
                 unsigned long currentMillis = millis();     // Read millis (from first start of the board) and load value to current Millis variable

                                if (currentMillis - previousMillis >= interval)  { 
                                    previousMillis = currentMillis;                  // Time to beacon (INTERVAL) has come
                                    cDet = digitalRead(rx);                          // Read the Carrier Detect Input pin
                            
                                       if (cDet == HIGH){                            // If not QSO on the Rx frequency
                                            digitalWrite(ptt, HIGH);                 // Start Tx
                                            digitalWrite(ledtx, HIGH);               // PTT LED ON
                                            delay(100);                              // Wait a little
                                             beacon1();                              // Transmitting Audio Beacon 1
                                            delay(100);                              // Wait a little
                                            digitalWrite(ptt, LOW);                  // Go in StandBy
                                            digitalWrite(ledtx, LOW);                // LED TX OFF
                                                         }
                          
                                        else if (cDet == LOW) {                      // If a QSO on the RX frequency
                                           delay(100);                               // Wait a little          
                                             beacon2();                              // Transmitting Audio Beacon 2
                                           digitalWrite(ptt, HIGH);   }              // Keep the repeater transmitting
                                           digitalWrite(ledtx, HIGH);                // LED TX ON
                                                                                   }
                                else {}                                              // If time to beacone hasn't come (INTERVAL), do nothing     
   
               }
 
 
        // **** Audio Beacon 1 - for StandBy (No QSO in progress)
        void beacon1() {
      
          delay (500);
       
  delay (100);                                     // Wait a little
              sendmsg(RPT_call) ;                  //send call
              delay(7*DOTLEN) ;
              sendmsg("QRV") ;                     //send info
              delay(7*DOTLEN) ;
             //  sendmsg(RPT_ctcss);                // uncomment this two lines if there is a CTCSS enabled on the repeater
             //  delay(7*DOTLEN) ;
              sendmsg(RPT_loc) ;                   //send qth locator
              delay(7*DOTLEN) ;
              sendmsg(END_msg);
              delay(3*DOTLEN) ;
                         return;  }
                          
        // **** Audio Beacon 2 - For repeating (QSO in progress)
       
        void beacon2() {
              delay(100);
            tone(5, 2880, 100);
       delay(200);
            tone(5, 1740, 100);
       delay(200);
            tone(5, 1200, 100);
       delay(500);
            tone(5, 880, 200);
                          return; }
   
      void courtesy() {
                                                                     // We read the voltage of the battery via 'battery' external function
                     volts = battery() ;
                    
               Serial.println();
               Serial.print(volts);
                    delay(50);                                      // Wait for the portable radio who stops transmitting to get into the receiving mode to be able to hear the tone


            if ((volts >= 0) && (volts < 10.5)) {                         // Practically, this will end the normal operation leaving only the receiver section open to monitor the frequency. Beep is just for tests.
   
                tone(5, 440, 300);
                delay(301);
                              }
           
            else if ( volts >= 10.5 && volts < 11.5) {     // Watch out! The battery goes low, limit comms!

                tone(5, 1880, 200);
                delay(201);
                tone(5, 440, 200);
                delay(201);
                                                   }
           
           
            else if ( volts >=11.5 && volts < 13.6) {     // This is OK, normal operations

                tone(5, 2900, 70);
                delay(71);
                                                    }
           
            else if (volts >= 13.6) {                     // Over voltage for some reasons. Not normal!

                tone (5, 1880, 200);
                delay(201);
                tone(5, 2880, 200);                   // We have to do something to discharge the battery!
                delay(201);
                                    }

              
                       }




/////////////////////////    CW GENERATION ROUTINES  //////////////////////////
void dash() {
    tone(CW_pin,CW_PITCH);
    delay(DASHLEN);
    noTone(CW_pin);    
    delay(DOTLEN) ;
    }
////////////////////////////
void dit() {
  tone(CW_pin,CW_PITCH);
  delay(DOTLEN);
  noTone(CW_pin);   
  delay(DOTLEN);
  }
///////////////////////////
void send(char c) {
  int i ;
    if (c == ' ') {
    delay(7*DOTLEN) ;
    return ;
    }
   if (c == '+') {
    delay(4*DOTLEN) ;
    dit();
    dash();
    dit();
    dash();
    dit();
    delay(4*DOTLEN) ;
    return ;
    }   
   
  for (i=0; i<N_MORSE; i++) {
    if (morsetab[i].c == c) {
      unsigned char p = morsetab[i].pat ;
      while (p != 1) {
          if (p & 1)
            dash() ;
          else
            dit() ;
          p = p / 2 ;
          }
      delay(2*DOTLEN) ;
     // wdt_reset();        // Reset Watchdog timer
      return ;
      }
    }
  }
///////////////////////////
void sendmsg(char *str) {
  while (*str)
    send(*str++) ;
  }
 

        
/////////////////////////  END  CW GENERATION ROUTINES  //////////////////////////



21 ianuarie 2016

YAESU FT-2D Firmware Update

New update for Yaesu FT-2D on January 20, 2016!


Yaesu Musen  announced a new firmware update for the FT-2D radio. 

  According to the company,  "C4FM corresponding to the digital narrow,"  "further optimize the C4FM digital demodulation control under conditions reception is severe, such as weak electric field and multi-path", that a number of improvements have been achieved.
 
Shipped in 2015 the end of May to start a C4FM digital mode compatible handy machine · FT2D is, was a major update of recently's first firmware. Its contents are as follows.

★ new firmware of FT2D published on January 20:
 
· FT2D for the main firmware main firmware Ver.1.04 FT2D_MAIN_ver104 (JPN) .zip
For · FT2D sub firmware sub firmware Ver.1.01 FT2D_SUB_ver101 (JPN) .zip
· FT2D for DSP firmware DSP firmware Ver.4.12 PCTOOL_v0412.zip
 
Major changes:
 
(1) it has been done to optimize the backlight and the lighting timer setting.
It was made possible display the distance between the (2) C4FM partner station of digital and APRS communication up to 20,000km.
(3) receive, such as a weak electric field and multi-path condition was further optimize the C4FM digital demodulation control under severe conditions.
(4) we now support C4FM digital narrow.
(5) Other, we gave a functional improvement and optimization.
 
In addition, the update of firmware, use the USB cable that came with FT2D. Before connecting the radio to the computer, read the manual updates, it is necessary to install the software and drivers required for the personal computer.
When performing the update work that confirm the steps in the pre-manuals. Download from the following related links.

DOWNLOAD:

-PC_tool
-FT2D_SUB_ver101(JPN).zip
-FT2D_MAIN_ver104(JPN).zip

 

ICOM IC-7300

In the middle of winter, the air got hotter and hotter as the release date is approaching.
The estimate date for Europe is the end of January 2016 and I hope to have it on my table in the first week of February!

The shipping to Japan (well...) already started a few days ago. To USA is still on hold due to FCC approval but to Europe... Well, it will be here soon!


Here is the Product Brochure for the Icom IC-7300 in pdf format.
Note that on some browsers the site is reported as a malware site but is not true.

The file is on Google drive now.

73 de YO3HJV

Later Edit:

Here is the User basic manual for the ICOM IC-7300.

ICOM Europe postponed the distribution to middle March 2016.
I understand that the European launch is synchronised with the USA market launch which is FCC dependant, so...


Here are the full specification list according to this Manual:



DDGeneral
••Frequency coverage (unit: MHz):
Receiver 0.030000 ~ 74.800000*1
Transmitter 1.800000 ~ 01.999999*2
3.500000 ~ 03.999999*2
5.255000 ~ 05.405000*2
7.000000 ~ 07.300000*2
10.100000 ~ 10.150000*2
14.000000 ~ 14.350000*2
18.068000 ~ 18.168000*2
21.000000 ~ 21.450000*2
24.890000 ~ 24.990000*2
28.000000 ~ 29.700000*2
50.000000 ~ 54.000000*2
70.000000 ~ 70.500000*2
*1 Some frequency ranges are not guaranteed.
*2 Depending on the transceiver version.
••Operating modes: USB/LSB (J3E), CW (A1A), RTTY (F1B), AM (A3E) and FM (F3E)
••Number of memory channels: 101 (including 2 scan edges)
••Antenna connector: SO-239 (antenna impedance: 50 Ω)
••Power supply requirement: 13.8 V DC (±15%)
••Operating temperature range: –10°C to +60°C, +14°F to +140°F
••Frequency stability: Less than ±0.5 ppm (–10°C to +60°C, +14°F to +140°F)
••Frequency resolution: 1 Hz (minimum)
••Power consumption:
Receive Standby 0.9 A
Maximum audio 1.25 A
Transmit Maximum power 21.0 A
••Dimensions (projections not included): 240 (W)×94 (H)×238 (D) mm, 9.4 (W)×3.7 (H)×9.4 (D) in
••Weight (approximately): 4.2 kg, 9.3 Ib
DDTransmitter
••Transmit output power:
HF and 50 MHz bands
SSB/CW/RTTY/FM 2~100 W
AM 1~25 W
70 MHz band*2
SSB/CW/RTTY/FM 2~50 W
AM 1~12.5 W
*2 Depending on the transceiver version.
••Modulation system:
SSB P.S.N. modulation
AM Low power modulation
FM Reactance modulation
••Spurious emission:
Harmonics Less than –50 dB (1.8~28 MHz)
Less than –63 dB (50 MHz band)
Less than –60 dB (70 MHz band)
Out-of-band emission Less than –40 dB (1.8~28 MHz)
Less than –60 dB (50 MHz band)
Less than –60 dB (70 MHz band)
••Carrier suppression: More than 50 dB
••Unwanted sideband suppression: More than 50 dB
••Microphone impedance: 600 Ω
DDReceiver
••Receive system: Direct sampling superheterodyne
••Intermediate frequency: 36 kHz
••Sensitivity (Filter: SOFT):
SSB/CW (at 10 dB S/N)
1.8 ~ 29.999999 MHz Less than –123 dBm (0.16 μV) (P.AMP1 ON)
50 MHz band Less than –125 dBm (0.13 μV) (P.AMP2 ON)
70 MHz band*2 Less than –123 dBm (0.16 μV) (P.AMP2 ON)
*2 Depending on the transceiver version.
AM (at 10 dB S/N)
0.5 ~ 1.8 MHz Less than –85 dBm (12.6 μV) (P.AMP1 ON)
1.8 ~ 29.999999 MHz Less than –101 dBm (2.0 μV) (P.AMP1 ON)
50 MHz and 70 MHz bands Less than –107 dBm (1.0 μV) (P.AMP2 ON)
FM (at 12 dB SINAD)
28.0 ~ 29.7 MHz Less than –113 dBm (0.5 μV) (P.AMP1 ON)
50 MHz and 70 MHz bands Less than –119 dBm (0.25 μV) (P.AMP2 ON)
••Squelch sensitivity (threshold):
SSB Less than –92 dBm (5.6 μV)
FM Less than –117 dBm (0.3 μV)
(HF band: P.AMP1 ON, 50 MHz band: P.AMP2 ON)
••Selectivity (Filter: SHARP):
SSB (BW=2.4 kHz) More than 2.4 kHz/–6 dB
Less than 3.4 kHz/–40 dB
CW (BW=500 Hz) More than 500 Hz/–6 dB
Less than 700 Hz/–40 dB
RTTY (BW=500 Hz) More than 500 Hz/–6 dB
Less than 800 Hz/–40 dB
AM (BW=6 kHz) More than 6.0 kHz/–6 dB
Less than 10 kHz/–40 dB
FM (BW=15 kHz) More than 12.0 kHz/–6 dB
Less than 22 kHz/–40 dB
••Spurious and image rejection: More than 70 dB (except for ADC aliasing)
••Audio output power: More than 2.5 W (8 Ω load, 1 kHz, 10% distortion)
••AF output impedance: 8 Ω
••RIT variable range: ±9.999 kHz
DDAntenna tuner
••Tunable impedance range: 16.7~150 Ω (unbalanced) (less than 3:1 VSWR)
••Tuning accuracy: Less than 1.5:1 VSWR
••Tuning time (approximately): 2~3 seconds (average)
15 seconds (maximum)
LAll stated specifications are typical and subject to change without notice or obligation.

08 ianuarie 2016

RK7K, another pirate station from disputed teritories occupied by the Russians

Well, I had a previous post about a pirate ham station from the "Republic of Donetsk".
It seems that the russians speculate the wish for HF of our comrade hams and forces (i hope is a forced "option") to use russian issued ham callsigns in order to practice their hobby.

Is sad, it's like taken the favorite toy from a helpless child but the reality is that RK7K is not a valid ham radio callsign.

Why?

Because, to be valid, the callsigns had to be issued to a national authority recognised by ITU. Or, the Crimea Peninsula/ Republic of Crimea is under the Ukraine's administration when we are speaking of radio spectrum and coordination!
So, for me, as a Romanian Ham, RK7K is, sadly, just a pirate stations ahich I am not allowed to contact by radio means.

Nope, the QSL card is not mine, but a Romanian fellow ham who was fooled into this info war..






Here is a message from  Ukrainian Amateur Radio League:


Mamuka Kordzakhia:
Ukrainian Amateur Radio League
APPEAL to the international amateur radio community
1
On March 2014 Russia has occupied and annexed Ukrainian territory known as Autonomous Republic of Crimea (UU/UT*J).
Annexation of the peninsula had violated fundamental principles of the United Nations, the Final Act of Helsinki Conference on security and co-operation in Europe, and number of others international and bilateral Russian-Ukrainian treaties. Under all these treaties Russia has undertaken obligations to assure sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine.
2
List of obligations and treaties signed by Russia but failed to observe by occupation of Crimea:
a. Article 2. Clause 4. Charter of the United Nations. “Member-states shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations”;
b. Article 2. Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe. Final act. “The participating States will refrain in their mutual relations, as well as in their international relations in general, from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State…”;
c. Budapest memorandum. Where Russia, the U.K and the USA reaffirm to respect the independence and sovereignty and the existing borders of Ukraine in exchange of abandon nuclear weapon;
d. Article 2. Treaty of friendship, co-operation and partnership between Russian and Ukraine (Russian). Where parties respect each other sovereignty and inviolability of borders in accordance with Charter of the United Nations and Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe.
e. Chapter 1. Chapter 15 clause.4 the Constitution of the Russia. Where mentioned that international treaty shall prevail over domestic once.
3
This is first annexation in Europe for almost 70 years. It is outrage violations of fundamental principles of European security, which has been achieved with great difficulties after WWII. Moreover, It creates very dangerous precedent of selective approach to undertaken commitments. In Europe and the whole world there is virtually every state which is not satisfied with its own existing borders, thus, one-sided revision of borders may bring the world to the brink of WWIII.
Ukraine is the very first state in the history which has abandoned its nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles on own will. All stock of weapon was handed over specifically to Russia in exchange assurance of territorial integrity formalized by Budapest memorandum. Russia, however, being a party of Budapest memorandum has committed aggression against Ukraine. Occupation of the territory took place without prior notice, declaration of war, suspension of own obligations or withdrawal any of above mentioned treaties.
International community has resolutely condemned occupation and annexation of Crimea and stood in favor of territorial integrity of Ukraine.
4 UN Resolution calling upon states not to recognize changes in status of Crimea;
The Hague declaration following the g7 meeting on 24 March. Condemnation of aggression.
Council of Europe (COE) The illegal annexation of Crimea has no legal effect and is not recognized by the Council of Europe.
European Commission for Democracy through Law (VENICE COMMISSION) Conclusion on
illegality of referendum in Crimea.
President of the USA Barak Obama statement on Ukraine. “The future of Ukraine must be
decided by the people of Ukraine. … Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity must be
respected, and international law must be upheld”.
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Attachment 5. “We reiterate that
we will not recognize the Russian annexation of Crimea”.
5
Following illegitimate occupation and annexation the Amateur Union of Russia(SRR) has
hastened to establish its branches in the annexed territory and Russian General Radio Frequency Centre
(GRFC) commenced issuing amateur radio licenses.
The actions of the kind are completely contradict provisions of
f. Section II Article 19. Clause 19.29 § 12 “Allocation of international series and assignment of call
signs” of Radio Regulations of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) which requires that
all stations open to international public correspondence, all amateur stations, and other stations
which are capable of causing harmful interference beyond the boundaries of the territory or
geographical area in which they are located, shall have call signs from the international series
allocated to its administration as given in the Table of Allocation of International Call Sign Series
in Appendix 42.
g. Article 9.5 of Regulations of amateur radio communication of Ukraine which have been
developed on the base of ITU Radio regulations. As per the above article all foreign amateur
radio stations operating in Ukraine should add UT/ in front of their callsigns.
6
Ukraine is a member of ITU since 1992. It strongly follows provisions of ITU Radio Regulations
and Convention. Both documents have been ratified by the Parliament of Ukraine on 15 July 1994., thus
Ukraine has obtained full legitimate rights to manage frequency spectrum within its territory. Thus, Only
Ukraine through its authorized institutions possesses rights to issue amateur licenses within allocated
series of callsigns. As per Appendix 42, of ITU Regulations series of callsigns allocated for Ukraine are:
EMA-EMZ
ENA-ENZ
EOA-EOZ
URA-UZZ.
Out of above series, Regulations of amateur radio communication of Ukraine allocated following
series of callsigns for Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol city:
UU - Autonomous Republic of Crimea
UT5J/UU9 –Sevastopol, Crimean city of special status.
However, Russian GRFC had unlawfully allocated following series:
R*6K*
R*7K*
R*7R* - for Sevastopol, city of special status.
In view of obvious violation of above articles of ITU Regulations as well prefixes allocated by
Ukrainian Center of Radio Frequency (UCRF), all these signs shall be treated as ILLEGAL OF PIRATE.
The only authorized body witch has legitimate rights to manage frequency spectrum as well as
issue on air operation licenses is Ukrainian Center of Radio Frequency (UCRF), the body whose authority
on frequency spectrum management has been confirmed by ITU, Chapter. 1.1.4.42, page. 254
7
Based on the above stated, the National Radio Amateur organization Ukrainian Amateur Radio
League (UARL) DECLARES that in all contests, award programs other UH/UHF events hosted by UARL
recognized can be only series of callsigns UU – UT5J or foreign callsigns UT/CALLSIGN for Autonomous
Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol and credited for Ukraine.
UARL is APPEALING to the international amateur radio community, contest and award
organizers, ham radio logger developers, all other organizers of any HAM radio UH/UHF events and
activities for the same, namely:
1. Do not recognize issued by occupational authorities following Russian prefixes R*6K*; R*7K*; R*7R*.
2. Do not credit locations Sevastopol, Crimea (Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Respublika Krym) as territory of Russia .
3. As long as international community considers Crimea as essential part of Ukraine, the only series of prefixes to be credited are those which allocated by ITU and UCRF such as UU – UT*J, and (Autonomna Respublica Krym, Autonomous republic of Crimea or Crimea) and Sevastopol) to be credited for Ukraine.
4. Credit operation group of islands Black Sea Coast island groups (Kosa Tuzla, Lebyazh'i) EU-180, as per list of IOTA, only with Ukrainian callsigns or foreign once with approved prefix UT/CALLSIGN.
UARL is urging those who had already taken decision which is not in favor of this appeal to reconsider it.
8
Ukrainian Amateur Radio League once again confirms its commitment to HAM SPIRIT and particularly emphasize that this appeal has in no way political! On the contrary, this is the matter of respect of international agreements, voluntarily undertaken obligations, own law and self-respect. The principles of business as usual in cases like that just encourage trespasser for further violations.

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